NASA's Hubble Telescope Images Distant Galaxy With New Computer Code

By applying a new computational analysis to a distant galaxy, astronomers have obtained images 10 times sharper than what Hubble could achieve on its own, NASA has said. The results show an edge-on disk galaxy studded with brilliant patches of newly formed stars.

“When we saw the reconstructed image we said, ‘Wow, it looks like fireworks are going off everywhere’,” said astronomer Jane Rigby of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

The galaxy in question is so far away that we see it as it appeared 11 billion years ago, only 2.7 billion years after the big bang.

It is one of more than 70 strongly lensed galaxies studied by the Hubble space telescope, following up targets selected by the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, which discovered hundreds of strongly lensed galaxies by searching Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data covering one-fourth of the sky.

 NASA's Hubble Telescope Images Distant Galaxy With New Computer Code

The gravity of a giant cluster of galaxies between the target galaxy and Earth distorts the more distant galaxy’s light, stretching it into an arc and also magnifying it almost 30 times.

The team had to develop special computer code to remove the distortions caused by the gravitational lens, and reveal the disk galaxy as it would normally appear.

The resulting reconstructed image revealed two dozen clumps of newborn stars, each spanning about 200 to 300 light-years.

This contradicted theories suggesting that star-forming regions in the distant, early universe were much larger, 3,000 light-years or more in size.

These findings appeared in a paper published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters and two additional papers published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Samsung Galaxy On Max to Go on Sale in India Today: Price, Specifications

Samsung Galaxy On Max, the recently launched new camera-centric phablet from the South Korean consumer electronics giant, will go on sale for the first time in India on Monday. The smartphone will go on sale via exclusive retail partner Flipkart from 11:59pm IST.

The Galaxy On Max, which supports Samsung Pay Mini, is almost identical to the recently launched Samsung Galaxy J7 Max, which was made available via offline retail stores and the Samsung India site with a price of Rs. 17,900. The primary difference between the Samsung Galaxy J7 Max and the Samsung Galaxy On Max is in the processor. The former bears a MediaTek Helio P20 SoC, while the latter bears a MediaTek Helio P25 Lite SoC.

Samsung Galaxy On Max price in India

The Samsung Galaxy On Max price in India is Rs. 16,900, while the smartphone will be available in Black and Gold colour variants in the country. Launch offer includes a Rs. 2,000 discount for buyers using Standard Chartered credit and debit cards. At its price, the smartphone compares with the Oppo F3, Moto G5 Plus, Oppo F1s, Honor 8, Honor 8 Lite, and even the Samsung Galaxy J7 Prime.

Samsung Galaxy On Max specifications

The dual-SIM Samsung Galaxy On Max runs Android 7.0 Nougat, and sports a 5.7-inch full-HD (1080×1920 pixels) display. The smartphone is powered by an octa-core MediaTek MTK P25 SoC (with four cores clocked at 2.39GHz and four cores clocked at 1.69GHz) coupled with 4GB of RAM.

samsung galaxy on max side samsung

Coming to the cameras on the Samsung Galaxy On – the smartphone bears 13-megapixel sensors and LED flash modules both on the front and back. The front sensor is coupled with a f/1.9 aperture lens, while the rear sensor is coupled with a f/1.7 aperture lens, which the company claims provide great low-light performance.

The smartphone bears 32GB of inbuilt storage that’s expandable via microSD card (up to 256GB). For connectivity options, the smartphone offers 4G VoLTE, alongside Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, a 3.5mm audio jack, and a Micro-USB port. It weighs 178 grams and measures 156.6×78.7×8.1mm. It is powered by a 3300mAh battery.

Samsung Galaxy On Max features

The Samsung Galaxy On Max sports a fingerprint sensor on the home button. It also supports Samsung Pay Mini, which was launched in India last month alongside the Samsung Galaxy J7 Pro and Galaxy J7 Max. It supports UPI-based payments and integrates a mobile wallet, but forgoes the NFC and MST-powered offline tap-to-pay features that essentially replace debit and credit cards.

Samsung is also touting the Social Camera Mode on the Samsung Galaxy On Max – the feature is supposed to provide instant sharing options to users, letting them pin their favourite social media contacts for quick sharing. The company says the Social Camera Mode also lets users utilise live stickers.

Milky Way's Fastest Stars Are 'Runaways' From Another Galaxy: Study

The fastest-moving stars in our galaxy – which are travelling so swiftly that they can escape the Milky Way – are in fact ‘runaways’ from a much smaller galaxy orbiting around our own, scientists say.

The researchers, from the University of Cambridge in the UK, showed that these stellar sprinters originated in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a dwarf galaxy orbiting around the Milky Way.

These fast-moving stars, known as hypervelocity stars, were able to escape their original home when the explosion of one star in a binary system caused the other to fly off with such speed that it was able to escape the gravity of the LMC and get absorbed into the Milky Way.

Astronomers first thought that the hypervelocity stars, which are large blue stars, may have been expelled from the centre of the Milky Way by a supermassive black hole.

To date, roughly 20 hypervelocity stars have been observed, mostly in the northern hemisphere.

“The hypervelocity stars are mostly found in the Leo and Sextans constellations – we wondered why that is the case,” said Douglas Boubert, a PhD student at Cambridge.

An alternative explanation to the origin of hypervelocity stars is that they are runaways from a binary system.

In binary star systems, the closer the two stars are, the faster they orbit one another. If one star explodes as a supernova, it can break up the binary and the remaining star flies off at the speed it was orbiting.

The escaping star is known as a runaway. Runaway stars originating in the Milky Way are not fast enough to be hypervelocity because blue stars can not orbit close enough without the two stars merging. However, a fast-moving galaxy could give rise to these speedy stars.

The LMC is the largest and fastest of the dozens of dwarf galaxies in orbit around the Milky Way. It only has 10 percent of the mass of the Milky Way, and so the fastest runaways born in this dwarf galaxy can easily escape its gravity.

Milky Way's Fastest Stars Are 'Runaways' From Another Galaxy: Study

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The LMC flies around the Milky Way at 400 kilometres per second and the speed of these runaway stars is the velocity they were ejected at plus the velocity of the LMC. This is fast enough for them to be the hypervelocity stars.

“This also explains their position in the sky, because the fastest runaways are ejected along the orbit of the LMC towards the constellations of Leo and Sextans,” said Rob Izzard, a Rutherford fellow at the Institute of Astronomy.

The researchers used a combination of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and computer simulations to model how hypervelocity stars might escape the LMC and end up in the Milky Way.

They simulated the birth and death of stars in the LMC over the past two billion years and noted every runaway star.

The orbit of the runaway stars after they were kicked out of the LMC was then followed in a second simulation that included the gravity of the LMC and the Milky Way.

These simulations allow the researchers to predict where on the sky we would expect to find runaway stars from the LMC.

“We are the first to simulate the ejection of runaway stars from the LMC – we predict that there are 10,000 runaways spread across the sky,” said Boubert.